Category Archives: aircraft engine maintenance

Oil Analysis Technology Update-header

3 Key Benefits of Oil Analysis Technology

This article originally appeared on the P&WC Airtime Blog.

Recently added to the ESP™ plan, our (Pratt & Whitney Canada’s) Oil Analysis Technology is a powerful diagnostic and prognostic tool that helps customers avoid unscheduled events. We outline some key benefits below.


Taking routine oil samples from your engine and sending them for analysis is a fast, simple process that gives detailed insights into engine health that wouldn’t otherwise be possible.

This technology enables operators like Germany’s Arcus Air, an airline that offers chartered cargo and corporate flights, to plan maintenance in advance, thereby minimizing the risk of unscheduled events and maximizing engine availability.

Pratt & Whitney’s Oil Analysis Technology is a powerful tool that helps us better understand the health of our engines. We receive clear and concise data that allow for a quick overview but also for deep insights. Daniel Bürcky, Chief of Maintenance, Arcus Air

The sampling procedure is designed to be as user-friendly as possible. We provide customers with a kit that contains everything they need, from a syringe and tube or O-rings for collecting the oil to a pre-paid envelope with all the necessary paperwork for sending the sample to the lab in Canada.

Customers simply need to collect a sample during scheduled engine maintenance, then have the package picked up by FedEx. In return, they’ll receive a report outlining the results, along with recommended follow-up actions.

The sampling interval is typically from 200 to 300 hours, meaning that for a typical business jet or general aviation operator, samples only need to be taken once or twice a year, notes Frédérique Richard, Senior Manager, Oil Analysis Technology.


Oil analysis technology is used to monitor trace particles in oil-wetted components such as carbon seals, gears and bearings. It compares their current condition with the signature of other healthy engines in the fleet. Once a component deteriorates past a certain threshold, our team will provide specific maintenance recommendations.

It’s like going to the doctor to have a blood sample taken, explains Frédérique. If the doctor analyzes your blood and sees that you have a health issue, like slightly high cholesterol, she’ll suggest doing something like changing your diet or exercising more. Our Oil Analysis Technology works in a similar way.

We look at the data and if anything needs to be done, we help customers figure out the right next steps. We give them a tailored ‘prescription’ – a specific maintenance recommendation to address the matter before it becomes an issue. Frédérique Richard, Senior Manager, Oil Analysis Technology

The insights gained from this technology therefore give customers greater operational confidence by letting them know when they should keep a closer eye on specific components or take action to repair or replace them.

One example is carbon seals. If these components are left to deteriorate, it could eventually lead to unplanned maintenance events, which may entail unexpected costs like hangar rental, spare engine shipment or cancelled revenue flights.

All of that could be avoided with our Oil Analysis Technology.

“In some cases, we can tell hundreds of flight hours in advance if a carbon seal is deteriorating,” says Frédérique. “Once we see that, we’ll issue a recommendation to monitor its condition more frequently. When action is required, we’ll advise the operator to proactively remove the engine at the next scheduled maintenance and send it to the shop for replacement.”

Thanks to this technology, we’ve been able to identify early deterioration patterns and recommend proactive maintenance on a number of engines. These customers were able to schedule maintenance and avoid the disruption of situations such as cabin air contamination and metal in oil. Frédérique Richard, Senior Manager, Oil Analysis Technology


To date, with the help of customers around the world who want to go beyond basic engine maintenance and are embracing early detection, we have collected tens of thousands of oil samples.

The more data there is to work with, the more detailed and accurate our Oil Analysis Technology becomes, because it’s not static. It continues to evolve, as the new data helps us to refine engine oil signatures and fine-tune our algorithms.

“It’s an ongoing journey,” says Frédérique. “We keep investing in the technology and working to improve it.”

The advanced analytics that we use allow us to go deeper than human analysis alone could accomplish. This enables us to identify engines at risk of a particular issue, prioritize maintenance work, and ultimately drive operational improvements, cost savings and greater engine availability Frédérique Richard, Senior Manager, Oil Analysis

technology combined with other technologies such as our FAST™ solution, it enables customers to understand their engine inside out and fly with peace of mind. If our Oil Analysis Technology is like a blood test, FAST is like an MRI. These prognostic and diagnostic tools complement each other, contributing to a more holistic view of engine health.

Oil Analysis Technology is one of several recent additions to our ESP™ maintenance program. Learn more here.

Essentials For Your PT6A Engine Oil Analysis

This article originally appeared on the P&WC Airtime Blog.

In an aircraft engine, oil is much more than just a lubricant. It plays a number of other important roles, including cooling, cleaning and noise reduction. It’s therefore vital to monitor and analyze oil to ensure it’s doing its job properly.


Engine oil sampling and analysis are recommended if a visual inspection reveals that the oil is very dark, has an unusual odor or exhibits other abnormal properties. You don’t necessarily have to change the oil, but at the very least, it should be analyzed to determine its total acid number (TAN) and water content.

Typically, the water concentration in brand-new oil varies between 0.02% and 0.04%, or 200 and 400 parts per million (ppm). However, water can enter the engine’s oil system due either to accidental contamination during compressor wash or normal condensation. Since aircraft engine oils easily absorb water and moisture from the air, their water content will rise over time. If it exceeds 1000 ppm, the TAN may rise as well, eventually leading to engine component corrosion.


When you take an oil sample, identify it with the brand name, engine serial number, total run time (oil life) and engine time since new (TSN) or time since overhaul (TSO). Have the sample analyzed for its TAN and water content by an approved laboratory. If necessary, ask the lab to analyze the oil viscosity and additives as well.

If a parameter exceeds the established limit, it’s recommended that you: 1) drain and discard the oil from the tank; 2) check the condition of the oil filter and, if needed, replace it with a new one; 3) refill the tank with fresh oil.

If you have access to the right kits, you could also perform the analysis yourself. Use a Titra-Lube TAN Test Kit to analyze the oil’s TAN and a HydroScout Analyzer kit for the water content.

Read more: Oil Analysis Technology Makes Proactive Maintenance Easier.


Every time you add oil into your engine, write down the amount so that you can calculate the average consumption. Check this figure against the limits indicated in the maintenance manual. If the engine is using more oil than it should, there may be a part that needs maintenance. For example, a damaged O-ring could be causing a leak, or something may be happening in the engine that’s burning up extra oil.

Oil is key to your engine’s health and performance, so give it the attention it deserves by following the advice above.

Read all technical tips and talk from our experts about aircraft engine oil on Airtime.


The earliest aviation piston engines were lubricated with natural oils such as castor oil and refined mineral oils. However, they lacked the thermal-oxidative stability needed for high-temperature mechanical systems and would form deposits like gum and lacquer on metal surfaces.

In the 1950s, following research efforts aimed at improving thermal-oxidative stability, synthetic polyester-based lubricants became the base stock of choice for aviation gas turbine engine oils. Thanks to their chemical properties, these lubricants are effective over a wide temperature range, from -65oF to 425oF. They possess good thermal-oxidative stability, high lubricating film strength, good surface wetting, and low friction and wear rates, making them ideal for aircraft engines.

A Quicker Way to Overhaul Your PT6-A Engine

This article originally appeared on the P&WC Airtime Blog.

Aircraft engine overhauls are all about flying like new and they require careful planning. It all takes time and a maintenance scheduling. Imagine replacing your engine with one that has already been overhauled, all at a guaranteed price?

Continue reading A Quicker Way to Overhaul Your PT6-A Engine

Fashionably Late Doesn’t Apply To Your Engine TBO. Here’s Why

This article originally appeared on the P&WC Airtime Blog.

There are two simple reasons why always respecting an engine’s TBO is of fundamental importance to any operator: performance and economics. Discover why this is one deadline you don’t want to miss.

Continue reading Fashionably Late Doesn’t Apply To Your Engine TBO. Here’s Why

4 Must-Haves For PT6A Engine Line Maintenance

This article originally appeared on the P&WC Airtime Blog.

Certain equipment is essential for keeping a PT6A engine running smoothly. Here are four tools and parts that either the aircraft owner or the operator needs to have when doing routine maintenance work.


Typically, ultrasonic fuel nozzle cleaning should be carried out every 200 to 400 hours(1) of flying time, to make sure the nozzle is performing properly and there are no problems such as blockages. “Whenever you clean your fuel nozzle, you should also check it for leaks and flow irregularities like drooling, spitting, streaking or other patterns that could damage the hot section,” explains Yves Houde, PT6A Customer Manager at Pratt & Whitney Canada.

Checking for irregularities of the fuel nozzle requires the use of both a flow check fixture and a pressure check fixture. These are fitted over the nozzle to help identify tips that need to be cleaned or replaced and verify the presence of any leaks before the aircraft is returned to service. Learn more about what to check for in our article on fuel nozzle maintenance.


Whenever undertaking fuel nozzle maintenance, make sure to perform a borescope inspection at the same time. To do this, you will need a borescope kit, including a guide tube for accessing hard-to-reach areas of the engine. Using a borescope is much easier than the old-fashioned method, which involves opening up the engine.

A borescope allows for assessment of hot section components for wear or damage that may not be evident from a regular ground power check or flight data collection. For instance, on a single power turbine engine, inserting a borescope through the exhaust duct port and power turbine stage may reveal trailing edge cracks on compressor turbine blades.

“It’s the number-one equipment you need to have for line maintenance,” says Yves. “The time when fuel nozzle cleaning is performed is an ideal moment for operators to assess the hot section’s condition with a borescope. We also advise using it to check the first-stage compressor for foreign object damage every year.”

Borescope kits are made by a number of companies. PT6A owners can check their engine’s maintenance manual for the recommended product’s part number and order it from a designated supplier.

It’s hard to generalize about PT6A engines, but there’s some equipment you can’t do without. It’s the core of the line maintenance you need to perform.



Oil filter maintenance is recommended every 100 hours or so. When doing this procedure, use a puller/pusher to open and close the filter’s check valve. While the oil filter can be popped out by hand, it’s not a good idea to do so, since it could damage the oil filter check valve seal, which in turn could lead to static oil leak when the engine is not running.


PT6A engines may need to be washed periodically to remove salt and other impurities; how often depends on the operating environment. Whenever it’s time to clean the engine, a compressor wash rig and turbine rinse tube are essential.

Unlike other engines, most PT6A engines already have a wash ring installed around the air intake, so all you need to do is connect the compressor wash rig and insert the water. After the compressor wash, use the turbine rinse tube to clean the turbine as well.

You don’t need any special cleaning solution for a desalination wash—pure, ionized water will do. “But it’s always a good idea to test the water quality first to make sure it’s suitable for cleaning,” adds Yves. “If you use the wrong water, washing may end up causing more problems than it solves.” Have a look at our article on desalination washes for more tips on keeping your engine free of contaminants.

(1) Refer to your Engine Maintenance Manual (EMM), Periodic Inspection Fuel Nozzle Cleaning interval for the interval that applies to your engine model.

King Airs and Caravans Serve Special Mission Needs

When it comes to special mission aircraft, Textron Aviation has a deep lineup of airplanes suited to the task, ranging from the single-engine piston Cessna 172 to its most sophisticated Citation jets. But its most popular mission-oriented aircraft come in two turboprop types, the Caravan single-engine and the twin-engine King Air series. Both product lines are prime examples of dual-purposing, with a large following in the civil market for everything from owner-flown transport to commercial charter and business aviation flight departments. But these aircraft, when equipped for specific non-commercial or military operations, show their true mettle.

Continue reading King Airs and Caravans Serve Special Mission Needs

Canadians set to rock “Thunder Over Louisville” with R-1340 North American Harvard Trainers

On April 18, the Canadian Harvard Aerobatic Team (CHAT) wrapped up several weeks of spring training and is heading south for the coming “Thunder Over Louisville” airshow.

Continue reading Canadians set to rock “Thunder Over Louisville” with R-1340 North American Harvard Trainers

Maintenance Repair & Overhaul: Another Approach To Monitoring PT6A Engine Health?

High-tech sensors and systems may not be the only way to monitor engine health. Pratt & Whitney Canada has embarked on a project called Oil Analysis Technology, applying it first to the PT6A engine. But Program Manager Frederique Richard says the approach may have much wider applications.

Continue reading Maintenance Repair & Overhaul: Another Approach To Monitoring PT6A Engine Health?


The PT6A-42A Powered Piper Receives Approval of M600 from Brazilian Aviation Authority

Piper Aircraft, Inc. has been awarded approval from the National Civil Aviation Agency (ANAC) in Brazil for its top-of-the-line, single-engine turbo prop product, the M600.

Continue reading The PT6A-42A Powered Piper Receives Approval of M600 from Brazilian Aviation Authority