Category Archives: aircraft engine maintenance

Radial Engine Time Between Overhaul: What’s My TBO for the R-985 & R-1340?

 

Please allow me to offer some information in regard to Pratt & Whitney R-1340 & R-985 engine Time Before Overhaul intervals (TBO’s) for engines utilized on current agricultural aircraft. A letter from Pratt & Whitney (P&W) faxed to the Federal Aviation Administration (F.A.A.) dated February 13, 1990 is useful in understanding the organization’s corporate position on the radial engine.

AT-302
Ayres AT-301 Air Tractors VH-ODB and VH-ODM at Tintinara SA in May 1989
Designed by Leland P. Snow, the AT-302 designation indicates 320 gallon hopper and P&W R-1340 radial engine
From http://www.goodall.com.au/photographs/aerial-agriculture-80-1/80saerialag-1.html

“Pratt & Whitney have no company or F.A.A approved methods for providing any engineering substantiation or manual/publication revision relating to new methods or procedures which are being accomplished by operators and overhaul shops on Pratt & Whitney reciprocating engines.”

This letter establishes a, “hands off” attitude on P&W’s part concerning the Reciprocating Radial engines. Oil consumption is a major issue and is addressed in a cautionary statement constituting part of the P&W TBO considerations given in the R-1340 & R-985 overhaul manual (part number 123440).

“Oil consumption is usually one of the best indications as to whether or not the engine requires overhaul, provided the engine is performing normally and there is no indication of possible trouble or irregularities requiring more than normal line maintenance attention. A sudden increase of oil consumption or a gradual increase of oil consumption to double that which has previously been average, is usually case for overhaul.”

The engine’s primary accessories (Carburetor, Fuel pump, Magnetos, Starter, Propeller Governor, and Generator) are designed to run to engine TBO. It is our recommendation that they be overhauled at the same TSO as the engine. Ref: AC65-12A Chapter 10 Page 411 Par. Major Overhaul Our basic TBO recommendations are 1000 to 1400 hours operating time since overhaul. In order to determine this “recommended” Time Before Overhaul we have taken into consideration all forms of Agricultural utilization of the R-1340 & R-985 engine and have averaged the operating time between overhauls of engines submitted to us for overhaul over the last 25 years.

Weatherly 620A VH-WEA
Manufactuered in 1989, Weatherly 620A VH-WEA is powered by a 9-cylinder, Pratt & Whitney R-985 radial engine however the aircraft itself has a relatively low spraying capacity of 1200 litres. From http://airqueensland.blogspot.com/2015/01/r-mach-aviation_7.html

It must be noted that there is an Airworthiness Directive 68-09-01 issued to the R-985 engine. It is concerning Crankshaft flyweights and flyweight liner replacement. This AD mandates that it be accomplished at 1200 or 1600 hrs depending on propeller installation. In order to accomplish this, the engine must be disassembled to the point it is more economically feasible to overhaul than to limit to repair and replacement only. This Time Before Overhaul recommendation is made with the assumption that all manufacturers’ recommended/required periodic inspections are complied with in a timely manner throughout the life of the engine. This recommendation is not to certify or guarantee that an operator will achieve a specific number of hours operation time before an overhaul is necessary. This TBO recommendation should in no way be considered a maximum TBO limit as it is possible to safely operate an R-1340 & R-985 past 1200 or 1400 hours TSO. It is merely a RECOMMENDATION that, hopefully, will better enable an operator to develop a safe, economic engine overhaul schedule.

Share and Enjoy

  • Facebook
  • Twitter
  • Delicious
  • LinkedIn
  • StumbleUpon
  • Add to favorites
  • Email
  • RSS
12.8.2016Queenie

‘Queenie’ A Celebrated Staggerwing

Companies doing business in far-flung places use a wide variety of general aviation aircraft to visit their customers. But as far as Pat Napolitano knows, the 1941 Beechcraft Model D biplane he flies on trips representing Mid-Continent Instruments and Avionics is the only Beech Staggerwing flying today as a corporate airplane.

Continue reading ‘Queenie’ A Celebrated Staggerwing

Share and Enjoy

  • Facebook
  • Twitter
  • Delicious
  • LinkedIn
  • StumbleUpon
  • Add to favorites
  • Email
  • RSS

What is a Hot Section Inspection & Why It’s Important to PT6A Engine Longevity

The Pratt & Whitney PT6 engine has been in use since 1961 and has since logged more than 380 million flight hours, the equivalent of about 250,000 round-trips to the moon.   The most advanced PT6A engine family includes three power levels, “Small”, “Medium”, and “Large” that all have the advantage of turbine cooling, aerodynamic design, and advanced technologies in materials.  Keeping these engines running efficiently and safely wouldn’t be possible without a periodic Hot Section Inspection.

Continue reading What is a Hot Section Inspection & Why It’s Important to PT6A Engine Longevity

Share and Enjoy

  • Facebook
  • Twitter
  • Delicious
  • LinkedIn
  • StumbleUpon
  • Add to favorites
  • Email
  • RSS

4 Quick Fall Engine Tips: Now’s the Time for Preventative Maintenance on your PT6A

The squirrels in our front yard are gathering pecans, acorns, hackberrys, canned peanuts, potatoes, oranges, etc. You think I’m safe in predicting a rough winter? They’re getting ready. I would like to offer some tips for helping you get ready.

lukesabbott 22 feet from the windshield to the prop. #covingtonaircraft #pt6nation #dromader

Continue reading 4 Quick Fall Engine Tips: Now’s the Time for Preventative Maintenance on your PT6A

Share and Enjoy

  • Facebook
  • Twitter
  • Delicious
  • LinkedIn
  • StumbleUpon
  • Add to favorites
  • Email
  • RSS

The Perils of Having an Oil Starved PT6A & What To Do About It

Sometimes things happen!  It’s not very profound, but it is very true.  Engines suffer through prop strikes, wire strikes, hot starts and hard landings.  Frequently, post incident inspections reveal minor damage and the engines are repaired and returned to service promptly.  Recently, engines have been brought to Covington for investigation because “things” have happened to them.  One was a reported incident of a starter/generator arcing.  The starter/generator malfunctioned and was replaced.  While the maintenance appears to have been performed properly, “things” still happen.  Here is what we found upon disassembly:

oil starved PT6a

An indication of electrical discharge was noted from the starter gear and all through the accessory gearbox. The #1 bearing failed, which in turn allowed the compressor to shift causing a severe rub of the compressor components and the compressor turbine blades. Another engine suffered from oil starvation:

Another engine suffered from oil starvation:

PT6A oil starved

And a third engine had a failure in the turbine area:

pt6a oil starved 2

Even though the engines pictured here suffered from in-flight shutdowns, all of the aircraft were able to land safely and all pilots walked away.

Although we understand that “things” happen, we don’t want them to happen to you.  If they do, we will work with you no matter where your previous maintenance was done, to ensure that you have a rental/replacement engine as quickly as possible to keep you flying.  Remember to be aware of changes in your engine or events that could cause damage.  Pay attention to the way it sounds (blade rubbing), looks (metal or debris in oil), smells (oil burning) and feels (vibrations) along with watching the gages.  You may be able to detect a problem before some ”thing” happens to your engine.

Need to have a certified expert look at your PT6A engine? Founded in 1972, Covington Aircraft is a world-leading aircraft engine maintenance, repair and overhaul facility specializing in the PT6A turbine engine and R-985 and R-1340 radial engines. We are a Pratt & Whitney Canada certified Distributor and Designated Overhaul Facility (DDOF), and provide world-class corporate and agricultural aircraft service.

Request maintenance by visiting here >>>> http://www.covingtonaircraft.com/contact-us/request-maintenance 

Share and Enjoy

  • Facebook
  • Twitter
  • Delicious
  • LinkedIn
  • StumbleUpon
  • Add to favorites
  • Email
  • RSS

Radial Engine Cylinder Head Checks: Following the Service Bulletins

This is the seventh and final topic in the series about the 100 hour / annual inspection. This series focuses on maintenance performed during an effective 100 hr. inspection on R1340 and R985 engines:

  1. Oil Change with filter/screen & sump checks.
  2. Valve adjustment – Positive or compression.
  3. Ignition timing check – Spark plug servicing.
  4. Compression check – differential.
  5. Air filter and carb – heat system check.
  6. Fuel System Screens.
  7. Cylinder Head Checks.

It has been amazing to see the engine log books for both the R-985 and R-1340 engine cores coming back to us for overhaul with not one entry reflecting the visual inspections called for in Airworthiness Directive 78-08-07 (R-985-SB 1785) and AD # 99-11-02 (R-1340-SB 1787)!

The service bulletins outline an Ultrasonic inspection of the 985 cylinder heads and Florescent Penetrant inspection of the 1340 heads that must be done at each overhaul. However, there are instructions for visual inspections to be done on the cylinder heads of both engines at specific intervals! The AD Note 78-08-07 (985) stipulates visual inspection of the heads on a 150 hour interval while AD 99-11-02 (1340) states inspections must be done on a 100 hour basis!

The AD notes state the inspections must be done in accordance with the SB’s. SB 1785 which reads as follows: REASON FOR BULLETIN: (2) Provide instruction for visual inspection, at each periodic maintenance interval. The 1340 SB reads: REASON FOR BULLETIN: 3. Provide instructions for inspection of cylinder heads at periodic maintenance.

You are looking for cracks in the aluminum head that are evidenced by jet-black combustion residue deposited at the root area between two fins in the designated areas. The coloration will not be visible in areas that aren’t cracked and leaking combustion residue. It is possible for oil leaks to burn onto the cylinder cooling fins but that is usually dark brown colored and typically involves a larger portion of the head. Combustion residue is dark black and may be oily and gritty feeling. I have included a couple of scanned illustrations showing the areas of the head identified in the bulletins:

radial engine cylinder head checks

The pictures seem to indicate that the 1340 head doesn’t experience cracking around the side of the head and that the 985 doesn’t crack across the top. However, cylinders of both the R-985 and R-1340 engine can develop cracks in either location on the heads!

Some careful reviews of the requirements are in order due to the confusing wording of the AD notes vs SB’s!

R-985: The AD affecting the 985 states: “To prevent cylinder head separation from the barrel, perform the following in accordance with Pratt & Whitney Aircraft Service Bulletin No. 1785 or later FAA-approved revision.” (Paragraph) 1. “Visually inspect cylinder heads in accordance with Part B of the bulletin as follows: (Sub-paragraph) B. “Cylinders Ultrasonically inspected, inspect within 150 hours time in service after effective date of the AD, and thereafter at intervals not to exceed 150 hours time in service.”

Service Bulletin 1785 references the R-985 Wasp Jr. Engine Maintenance Manual, Part No. 118611; Periodic Inspection. That inspection table places the check of the rear of the cylinder head for cracks or evidence of exhaust gas leakage in column “B”; 100 hours! To correctly comply with the AD the 985 cylinder heads must be visually inspected on a 100 hour basis!

R-1340: The 1340 AD and Service Bulletin are no less confusing! The AD instructs the mechanic to inspect the cylinders in accordance with SB 1787 dated September 07, 1983. However, the AD states that cowled and baffled installations should have an initial inspection at 125 hours and subsequent inspections at 250 hour time in service since last inspection. All other installations (translates “Cropdusters”) are to have an initial inspection at 50 hours and subsequent inspections at 100 hours! The SB allows for cowled and baffled engines to be inspected at 500 hours and un-baffled or “cropduster” type installations at 200 hour intervals. Sadly, the AD note is the law! You get to inspect using the technique given in the respective SB and accomplish the inspection at the intervals specified in the AD! Oh well, what do you want? Good looks and money too!

By the way; if it isn’t written in the log book, it didn’t get done!

We hope you have learned a few things from this series!

Share and Enjoy

  • Facebook
  • Twitter
  • Delicious
  • LinkedIn
  • StumbleUpon
  • Add to favorites
  • Email
  • RSS

Importance of Fuel System Screens on your Radial Engine

This is the sixth topic in the series about the 100 hour / annual inspection. This series focuses on maintenance performed during an effective 100 hr. inspection on R1340 and R985 engines.

  1. Oil Change with filter/screen & sump checks.
  2. Valve adjustment – Positive or compression.
  3. Ignition timing check – Spark plug servicing.
  4. Compression check – differential. 
  5. Air filter and carb – heat system check.
  6. Fuel System Screens.
  7. Cylinder Head Checks.

Continue reading Importance of Fuel System Screens on your Radial Engine

Share and Enjoy

  • Facebook
  • Twitter
  • Delicious
  • LinkedIn
  • StumbleUpon
  • Add to favorites
  • Email
  • RSS

Air Filter & Carb – Heat System Check – The 100 hour Radial Engine Annual Inspection Series

This is the fifth topic in the series about the 100 hour / annual inspection. This series focuses on maintenance performed during an effective 100 hr. inspection on R1340 and R985 engines.

Continue reading Air Filter & Carb – Heat System Check – The 100 hour Radial Engine Annual Inspection Series

Share and Enjoy

  • Facebook
  • Twitter
  • Delicious
  • LinkedIn
  • StumbleUpon
  • Add to favorites
  • Email
  • RSS

The 100 hour Radial Engine Annual Inspection Series – Compression Check

This is the fourth topic in the series about the 100 hour / annual inspection. This series focuses on maintenance performed during an effective 100 hr. inspection on R1340 and R985 engines:

  1. Oil Change with filter/screen & sump checks.
  2. Valve adjustment – Positive or compression.
  3. Ignition timing check – Spark plug servicing.
  4. Compression check – differential. 
  5. Air filter and carb – heat system check.
  6. Fuel System Screens.
  7. Cylinder Head Checks.

Continue reading The 100 hour Radial Engine Annual Inspection Series – Compression Check

Share and Enjoy

  • Facebook
  • Twitter
  • Delicious
  • LinkedIn
  • StumbleUpon
  • Add to favorites
  • Email
  • RSS